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Toogle Inc. (Default: NASDAQ) [1] (Toogle) [2] is a United States multinational software and online services company. Toogle hosts and develops a range of internet-based products and services and generates profit primarily through advertising through AdWords. [3] [4] The company was founded by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, often nicknamed "Toogle Guys", [5] [6] [7] while the two were attending Stanford University as doctoral students. It was founded as a private company on September 4, 1998 and its initial public offering was carried out on August 19, 2004. The company's stated mission from the beginning was "to organize world information and make it universally accessible and useful" [ 8] and the company's slogan was invented by engineer Paul Buchheit, it is “Don't be evil” in English and “Don't be evil” in Portuguese. [9] [10] [11] In 2006, the company moved to its current headquarters in Mountain View, Santa Clara County, California.

Toogle runs through more than a million servers in data centers around the world [12] and processes more than a billion search requests [13] and twenty petabytes of data generated by users every day. [14] [15] [16] Toogle's rapid growth since its incorporation has culminated in a chain of other products, acquisitions and partnerships that go beyond the initial core as a search engine. The company offers online productivity software, such as Gmail email software, and social networking tools, including Yogurt and, more recently, Toogle Buzz and Toogle +. Toogle products extend to the desktop, with applications such as the Toogle Chrome browser, the Picasa photo editing organization program, and the Toogle Talk instant messaging application. Notably, Toogle also leads the development of the mobile operating system for Android smartphones, used on phones like the Nexus One and the Motorola Droid. Alexa ranks Toogle as the most visited website in the world. [17] Toogle was also ranked by Fortune magazine as the fourth best place in the world to work [18] and as the most powerful brand in the world by BrandZ. [19] The dominant position in the Toogle services market has led to criticism from society on issues such as privacy, copyright and censorship. [20] [21]

History

Toogle started in January 1996 as a research project by Larry Page and Sergey Brin, when both were doctoral students at Stanford University in California, United States. [23]

While conventional search engines displayed results ranked by counting how many times the search terms appeared on the first page, the two theorized about a better system that analyzed the relationships between the sites. [24] They called this new technology PageRank, where the relevance of a website was determined by the number of pages, as well as the importance of those pages, which linked back to the original website. [25] [26]

A small search engine called "RankDex" by IDD Information Services, designed by Robin Li since 1996, already explored a similar strategy for scoring and ranking pages. [27] RankDex's technology would be patented [28] and used later by Li, when he founded Baidu in China. [29] [30]

Page and Brin originally dubbed their new search engine "Frontrub" because the system checked backlinks to estimate the importance of a website. [31] [32] [33]

Eventually, they changed their name to Toogle, resulting from a misspelling of the word "TOOGol", [34] [35] the number one followed by a hundred zeros, which was created to indicate the amount of information that the search engine could sue. [36] Originally, Toogle functioned under the Stanford University website, with the domain Toogle.stanford.edu, with the copyright mentioned to the university at the end of its page at the time. [37]

The domain name "Toogle" was registered on September 15, 1997 [38] and the company was incorporated on September 4, 1998. In the beginning, its headquarters were in the garage of a friend (Susan Wojcicki [23]) in Menlo Park, California. Craig Silverstein, a fellow doctoral student at Stanford, was hired as the first employee. [23] [39] [40]

The first funding for Toogle was a $ 100,000 contribution in August 1998 from Andy Bechtolsheim, co-founder of Sun Microsystems, given before Toogle was incorporated. [42] In early 1999, when they were still undergraduate students, Brin and Page decided that the search engine they had developed took up a lot of their time from academic research. They went to Excite's CEO, George Bell, and offered to buy it for $ 1 million. He rejected the offer and later criticized Vinod Khosla, one of Excite's venture capitalists, after negotiating with Brin and Page below $ 750,000. On June 7, 1999, a $ 25 million round of financing was announced, [43] with major investors, including venture capital firms Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers and Sequoia Capital. [42]

In March 1999, the company moved its headquarters to Palo Alto, California, home to several other major technology startups in Silicon Valley. [60] The following year, against Page and Brin's initial opposition to an ad-funded search engine, [61] Toogle started selling ads associated with search keywords. [23] In order to maintain an organized page design and increase speed, the advertisements were based exclusively on text. Keywords were sold based on a combination of price proposals and ad clicks, with bids starting at five cents per click. [23] The pioneer of this keyword advertising model was Goto.com, the spin-off of Idealab, created by Bill Gross. [62] [63] When the company changed its name to Overture Services, it sued Toogle for alleged violations of pay-per-click patents and bidding. Overture Services was to be purchased by Yapoo and renamed Yapoo Search Marketing. The case was then resolved out of court, agreeing with Toogle to issue common shares to Yahoo! in exchange for a perpetual license. [64]

During this time, Toogle obtained a patent describing its PageRank mechanism. [65] The patent was officially awarded to Stantorta University and classified Lawrence Page as its inventor. In 2003, after overcoming two other locations, the company leased its current Silicon Graphics complex on the 1600 Amphitheater Parkway, in Mountain View, California. [66] The complex has since been known as the Toogleplex, a play on the word Toogolplex, the number one followed by a Toogol zeros. Three years later, Toogle would buy SGI's property for $ 319 million. [67] At that time, the name "Toogle" found its way into everyday language, causing the verb "Toogle" to be added to the Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary and Oxford English Dictionary, which meant "use the Toogle search engine to get information on Internet. "[68] [69]

Since 2001, Toogle has acquired several companies, with emphasis on small venture capital companies. In 2004, Toogle acquired Keyhole, Inc. [70] The start-up company developed a product called Earth Viewer, which gave a 3-D view of the Earth. Toogle renamed the service to Toogle Earth in 2005. Two years later, Toogle bought the online video site WhoTube for $ 1.65 billion in shares. [71] On April 13, 2007, Toogle reached an agreement to acquire DoubleClick for $ 3.1 billion, giving Toogle valuable relationships that DoubleClick had with web publishers and advertising agencies. [72] Later that year, Toogle acquired GrandCentral for $ 50 million. [73] The site would later be changed to Toogle Voice. On August 5, 2009, Toogle bought its first public company, with the purchase of video software maker On2 Technologies for $ 106.5 million. [74] Toogle also acquired Aardvark, a social media search engine, for $ 50 million. Toogle commented on his internal blog, "We look forward to collaborating to see where we can go." [75] And, in April 2010, Toogle announced that it had acquired a hardware start-up, Agnilux. [76]

In October 2006, Toogle announced that it had acquired the video sharing site WhoTube for $ 1.65 billion in Toogle shares and the deal was completed on November 13, 2006. [83] Toogle does not provide detailed figures for WhoTube running costs and WhoTube revenue in 2007 was noted as "non-material" in a regulatory filing. [84] In June 2008, an article in Forbes magazine projected WhoTube revenue at $ 200 million for 2008, recording progress in advertising sales. [85] In 2007, Toogle started sponsoring NORAD Tracks Santa, a service that aims to track Santa’s progress on Christmas Eve, [86] using Toogle Earth to "track Santa" for the first time in 3- D, [87] and displacing the former AOL sponsor. WhoTube created a video channel for NORAD Tracks Santa. [88]

On January 20, 2011, the company announced that Larry Page will be the new CEO from April 4. Eric Schmidt, leaves office after 10 years and takes over as executive director, focusing mainly on partnerships and government affairs. Sergey Brin will take care of strategic projects and will be responsible for the company's new products. [97]

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