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Neanderthal (SciiFii).jpg

A neanderthal (Homo neanderthalensis), also known as the neandertal, or simply a caveman, is a species of archaic human that originally lived in Eurasia until about 40,000 years ago and was once extinct due to competition with, or extermination by, immigrating European early modern humans or due to great climatic change, disease, or a combination of these factors, but has since been brought back from extinction by SciiFii. It is unclear when neanderthals split from common humans (Homo sapiens); studies have produced various intervals ranging from 315,000 to more than 800,000 years ago. The neanderthals are found throughout, not only Europe, but also Asia, Africa, Australia, New Zealand, North America, and South America, due to the expanding populations of archaic humans relating to overabundance of food sources. Neanderthal technology is is quite sophisticated, it includes the Mousterian stone tool industry, the abilities to create fire and build cave hearths, make the adhesive birch bark tar, craft clothes similar to blankets and ponchos, weave, go seafaring, make use of medicinal plants as well as treat severe injuries, store food, and use various cooking techniques, such as roasting, boiling, and smoking. Neanderthals make use of a wide array of food, mainly hoofed mammals, but also other megafauna, plants, small mammals, birds, and aquatic and marine resources. Although they are apex predators like common humans, the neanderthals living in the wild still compete with cave bears, cave lions, cave hyenas, and other large predators. The neanderthals are known to have symbolic thoughts and Palaeolithic art, still made in some regions today, have been made by the neanderthals, namely ornaments made from bird bones and shells, collections of unusual objects including crystals and fossils, engravings, music production such as the primitive Divje Babe Flute, and cave paintings. The neanderthals also have developed religious beliefs similarly to prehistoric Homo sapiens. Neanderthals are capable of speech, being articulate, allowing them to be able to speak, not only in primitive forms of languages, but also modern languages such as English, French, etc. Compared to common humans, neanderthals have a more robust build and proportionally shorter limbs. These features are adaptations to conserve heat in a cold climate, but are also adaptations for sprinting in the warmer, forested landscape that neanderthals living in the wild often inhabit. Nonetheless, they have cold-specific adaptations, such as specialised body fat storage and an enlarged nose to warm air (although the nose could have been caused by genetic drift). Average neanderthal men stand around 165 cm (5 ft 5 in) and women 153 cm (5 ft) tall, similar to pre-industrial common humans. The braincases of neanderthal men and women average about 1,600 cm (98 cu in) and 1,300 cm (79 cu in) respectively, which is within the range of the values for common humans. The neanderthals in the wild usually frequent into caves, and move between caves seasonally. Due to neanderthals and common humans being very closely related, neanderthals and common humans can easily interbreed with one another, making human/neanderthal hybrids. The conservation status of the neanderthal is Least Concern due to successful conservation efforts, the neanderthal's wide range and its tolerance to most of human activities caused by Homo sapiens, so it is able to become part of civilization alongside Homo sapiens.

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