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The owner of this page is FreezingTNT. According to policy, no other user, with the exception of admins, may edit this page without the owner's permission. If they do, they will receive an automatic 3 month block.

De-extinction, or resurrection biology, or species revivalism is the process of creating an organism, which is either a member of, or resembles an extinct species, or breeding population of such organisms. Cloning is the most widely proposed method, although selective breeding has also been proposed. Similar techniques have been applied to endangered species.

There is significant controversy over de-extinction, and critics assert that efforts would be better spent conserving existing species, and that the habitat necessary for formerly extinct species to survive is too limited to warrant de-extinction. All modern species, along with the "resurrected" species, will be alive when the humans leave (and that means extinct animals cannot replace their relatives).

Methods

Cloning

Cloning is one method discussed as an option for bringing extinct species back. Proponents include author Stewart Brand, and proposed species include the passenger pigeon and the woolly mammoth. De-extinction efforts are now underway to revive the passenger pigeon by extracting DNA fragments and taking skin samples from preserved specimens and, later, using band-tailed pigeons or rock pigeons as surrogate parents.

A team of Russian and South Korean scientists are, as of April 2013, in the planning stages of cloning a woolly mammoth using an Asian elephant as a surrogate mother. Large amounts of well-preserved mammoth tissue have been found in Siberia. If the process can be completed, there are plans to introduce the mammoths to Pleistocene Park, a wildlife reserve in Siberia. (Evolutionary biologist Beth Shapiro points out that "cloning" is a specific technique which cannot be accomplished without a living cell, none of which are available for mammoths, but suggests genome editing might be feasible).

Although de-extinction efforts have not yet succeeded in producing viable offspring of a previously extinct species, the same process has been applied successfully to endangered species. The banteng is the second endangered species to be successfully cloned, and the first to survive for more than a week (the first was a gaur that died two days after being born). Scientists at Advanced Cell Technology in Worcester, Massachusetts, United States extracted DNA from banteng cells kept in the San Diego Zoo's "Frozen Zoo" facility, and transferred it into eggs from domestic cattle, a process called somatic cell nuclear transfer. Thirty hybrid embryos were created and sent to Trans Ova Genetics, which implanted the fertilized eggs in domestic cattle. Two were carried to term and delivered by Caesarian section. The first hybrid was born on April 1, 2003, and the second two days later. The second was euthanized, but the first survived and, as of September 2006, remained in good health at the San Diego Zoo.

Scientists from the University of Newcastle and the University of New South Wales reported in May 2013 the successful cloning of the extinct frog Rheobatrachus silus using the process of somatic cell nuclear transfer. The embryos developed for several days but died. In an important development the scientists from Newcastle reported associated technologies that provide a "proof of concept" for the proposal that frozen zoos (also referred to as genome banks and seed banks) are an effective mechanism to provide an insurance against species extinction and the loss of population genetic diversity. They connected the circle between de-extinction and the prevention of extinction for threatened animal species. The important advances were the capacity to successfully recover live frozen embryonic cells from animals that produce large yolky eggs (anamniotes such as fishes and amphibians). When this development is combined with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) it enables the genome to be recovered. The scientists point out that many embryonic cells can be frozen and when combined with frozen sperm storage enables the genetic diversity of populations to be stored. With groups of vertebrates such as the amphibians facing an extinction crisis they propose this as an effective means to prevent extinction while the causes of declines can be identified and remedied. The technical difference between frozen tissue samples commonly used for genetic studies (e.g. phylogenetic reconstruction) and those in a frozen zoo is the use of cryoprotectants and special freezing rates at the time of freezing and thawing.

Selective breeding

The aurochs, which became extinct in 1627, could possibly be brought back by taking DNA samples from bone and teeth fragments in museums in order to obtain genetic material to recreate its DNA. Researchers would then compare the DNA to that of modern European cattle to determine which breeds still carry the creature's genes, and then undertake a selective breeding program to reverse the evolutionary process. The intention would be that with every passing generation, the cattle would more closely resemble the ancient aurochs.

The quagga, a subspecies of zebra which has been extinct since the 1880s, has been revived using selective breeding of zebras. Since the new animal is not genetically identical to the extinct subspecies, the new animal is called the Rau quagga.

Opposition

Opponents of de-extinction have claimed that efforts, and resources, to resurrect extinct species could have been better used trying to conserve endangered species that might themselves become extinct.

It has also been noted that a resurrected species, while being genetically the same as previously living specimens, will not have the same behaviour as its predecessors. The first animal to be brought back will be raised by parents of a different species (the fetus's host), not the one that died out and thus have differing mothering techniques and other behaviors.

Scientific American, in an editorial condemning de-extinction, pointed out that the technologies involved could have secondary applications, specifically to help species on the verge of extinction regain their genetic diversity, for example the black-footed ferret or the northern white rhinoceros. It noted, however, that such research "should be conducted under the mantle of preserving modern biodiversity rather than conjuring extinct species from the grave."

Other scholars have published ethical concerns regarding de-extinction. In Conservation Biology, Robert Sandler argues that introducing extinct species to environments may produce harm to modern species, as invasive species. Issues regarding scientific hubris, human and animal health, and the ecology of sensitive environments have been raised by the scientific community. Further research must be performed regarding de-extinction to investigate advantages and disadvantages to the technology. New technological practices must be examined to prevent environmental hazards.

Potential candidates for de-extinction:

Birds

  • Passenger pigeon – This species numbered in the billions before being wiped out due to commercial hunting and habitat loss. Using DNA found in museum specimens and skins, the non-profit organization Revive and Restore aims to recreate the passenger pigeon using its closest living relative, the band-tailed pigeon.
  • Moa – This group of large (up to 4 m [12 ft.] tall and 110 kg [250 lb.]), flightless birds became extinct in approximately 1400 AD following the arrival and proliferation of the Maori people on New Zealand; however, intact DNA from both preserved specimens and eggshells makes the moa a candidate for resurrection. New Zealand politician Trevor Mallard has suggested bringing back a medium-sized species.
  • Heath hen – This subspecies of the prairie chicken became extinct on Martha's Vineyard in 1932 despite conservation efforts; however, the availability of usable DNA in museum specimens and protected areas in its former range makes this bird a possible candidate for de-extinction and reintroduction to its former habitat.
  • Dodo – This large, flightless ground bird endemic to Mauritius became extinct in the 1640s due to exploitation by humans and due to introduced species such as rats and pigs, which ate their eggs. Due to a wealth of bones and some tissues, it is possible that this species may live again as it has a close relative in the surviving Nicobar pigeon.
  • Terror bird – It is possible to resurrect the long-extinct terror birds by altering the DNA of a modern seriema (the closest living relative of terror birds) into a gigantic carnivorous terror bird-like creature. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Gastornis - It is possible to ressurect the long-extinct herbivore, gastornis, by altering the DNA of a modern parrot into a much larger, flightless, and herbivorous gastornis-like creature. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Mesozoic birds - It is possible to ressurect the mesozoic birds by altering the dna of modern songbirds such as sparrows, finches, etc. into alexornis-like birds, avisaurus-like birds, confuciornis-like birds, etc. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Elephant bird
  • Huia
  • Moho (ʻŌʻō)
  • Haast's eagle - It might be possible to alter a Haast's eagle's closest relative, the Booted eagle to resemble the Haast's eagle in size and appearance. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Genyornis - It is possible to bring the Pleistocene genyornis back by altering DNA of ducks, turning the ducks with the modified DNA into gigantic flightless omnivorous genyornis-like birds. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Great Auk - Can be possible to bring this species back by using a razorbill as a surrogate mother.
  • Dromornis - Another gigantic flightless bird of Australia, it is possible to bring the Pleistocene dromornis back by altering DNA of ducks, turning the ducks with that kind of DNA into gigantic flightless omnivorous dromornis-like birds. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Asian ostrich - Could be possible to bring native Asian ostriches back altsring DNA of African ostriches, creating fully herbivorous and slightly larger ostrich species, and introducing these ostriches to many parts of Asia. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Argentavis - Can be possible to bring back the largest flying bird ever by turning a turkey vulture into this creature. It needs to happen in reality.
  • New Zealand Quail - It's possible to bring New Zealand quails back by using brown quails as surrogate mothers. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Carolina Parakeet - Can be possible to bring Carolina parakeets back by using a species of parakeet as surrogate mothers. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Rodrigues Solitaire - Can be possible to bring rodrigues solitaire back by using pigeons as surrogate mothers! It needs to happen in real life.
  • Pelagornis Sandersi - Might be possible to recreate this species by altering the DNA of a Wandering albatross and create prehistoric giant flying birds, which was the largest flying bird ever, superpassing even the Argentavis. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Californian Flamingo - Might be possible to recreate the only native flamingo of California by altering the DNA of modern greater flamingoes. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Powerful Goshawk - It is possible to recreate this bird my altering DNA of modern goshawks. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Sylviornis - It is possible to recreate this bird by altering DNA of modern chickens. It needs to happen in real life.
  • New Caledonian Gallinule - It is possible to recreate the New Caledonian gallinule by altering the DNA of modern rail birds. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Giant Malleefowl - It is possible to recreate giant mallefowls by altering DNA of modern mallefowls. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Pile-builder Megapode - It is possible to recreate this bird by altering DNA of modern Australian brushturkeys. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Consumed Scrubfowl - It is possible to recreate this bird by altering DNA of modern scrubfowls. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Viti Levu Scrubfowl - It is possible to recreate this bird by altering DNA of modern scrubfowls. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Teratornis - It is possible to recreate teratornis by altering DNA of modern turkey vultures. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Megafaunal Californian Condor - It is possible to recreate megafaunal Californian condors by altering DNA of modern Californian condors. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Titanohierax - It is possible to recreate this giant eagle-size hawk by altering DNA of modern red-tailed hawks. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Cuban Flightless Crane - It is possible to recreate this flightless crane species by altering DNA of modern sandhill cranes. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Californian Turkey - It is possible to recreate this giant Pleistocene turkey speices by altering the DNA of modern North American turkeys. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Jamaican Caracara - It is possible to recreate this bird of prey by altering DNA of modern caracaras. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Cuban Giant Owl - It is possible to bring this bird back by altering DNA of a species of modern owl. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Giant Swan - It is possible to recreate giant flightless swans of European islands by altering DNA of modern mute swans. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Moa-Nalo - It is possible to recreate giant flightless goose-like ducks by altering the DNA of modern ducks. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Nēnē-nui - It is possible to recreate this goose species of Hawaii by altering the DNA of modern Nēnē geese. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Giant Hawaiian Goose - It is possible to recreate large flightless Nēnē geese by altering DNA of modern Nēnē geese. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Kaua'i Finch - It is possible to recreate this extinct finch from Hawaii by altering DNA of a species of modern finch. It needs to happen in real life.

Reptiles

  • Megalania – It is possible to resurrect the long-extinct giant monitor lizards by altering the DNA of a Komodo dragon into its prehistoric counterpart, the giant monitor lizard. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Titanoboa – It is possible to recreate the Titanoboa by supersizing an anaconda into a prehistoric version of the anaconda. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Non-T-Rex Theropod dinosaurs - It is possible to recreate theropods which weren't T-Rex such as troodonts, dromaeosaurs, oviraptorids, therizinosaurs, alvarezsaurids, ornithomimids, compsognathids, coelophysids, etc. by altering the DNA of emus into feathered, reptilian creatures of the Mesozoic. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Pterosaurs - It is possible to recreate pterosaurs by using dna of birds, bats, and certain species of today's reptiles to bring pterosaurs back. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Simosuchus - It is possible to recreate Simosuchus, one of the only plant eating crocodilians, by mixing DNA of modern crocodiles/alligators and herbivorous lizards to "resurrect" this Mesozoic animal. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Pristichampsus - It is possible to recreate pristichampsus, a terrestrial Eocene crocodile, by modifying the DNA of modern crocodiles, creating terrestrial pristichampsus-like crocodiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Mourasuchus - It is possible to recreate a Miocene mourasuchus by mixing DNA with most of it being crocodile DNA (for most crocodilian features) and some pelican DNA (for a throat pouch), creating mourasuchus-like gentle giant filter-feeding crocodiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Stomatosuchus - It is possibleto recreate a Cretaceous stomatosuchus by mixing dna (with most of its dna being crocodiles and some DNA being baleen whales for its size and toothless snout with a throat pouch), creating gentle giant filter-feeding stomatosuchus-like crocodiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Ichthyosaurs - Could be brought back by altering the DNA of modern lizards and crocodiles, as well as mixing them (along with some additional DNA such as dolphin DNA to give it dolphin-like shape and is fully aquatic), creating fully-aquatic fish-eating ichthyosaur-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Rhomaleosaurus - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large fish-eating rhomaleosaurus-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Macroplata - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large fish-eating macroplata-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Augustasaurus - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large fish-eating augustasaurus-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Leptocleidus - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large fish-eating leptocleidus-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Pistosaurus - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large fish-eating pistosaurus-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Simosaurus - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large fish-eating simosaurus-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Lariosaurus - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large fish-eating lariosaurus-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Ceresiosaurus - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large fish-eating ceresiosaurus-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Nothosaurus - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large fish-eating nothosaurus-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Placodus - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large shellfish-eating placodus-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Cyamodus - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large shellfish-eating cyamodus-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Henodus - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large shellfish-eating henodus-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Placochelys - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large shellfish-eating placochelys-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Keichousaurus - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating small fish-eating keichousaurus-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Plesiosaurus - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large fish-eating plesiosaurus-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Cryptoclidus - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large fish-eating cryptoclidus-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Muraenosaurus - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large fish-eating muraenosaurus-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Elasmosaurids - Species such as elasmosaurus, styxosaurus, and thalassomedon could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large fish-eating augustasaurus-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Dolichorhynchops - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large fish-eating dolichorhynchops-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Tanystropheus - Could be brought back by altering the mixed up DNA of sea turtles and lizards, creating large terrestrial fish-eating tanystropheus-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Ornithopods - It is possible that ornithopods such as primitive ornithopods (hypsilophodon, parksosaurus, etc.), iguanodonts (dakotadons, iguanodons, ouranosaurus, etc.) rhabdodonts (rhabdodonts, muttaburrosaurus, etc.), and hadrosaurs (maiasauras, anatotitans, edmontosaurus, saurolophus, parasaurolophus, corythosaurus, etc.) could be brought back to life by mixing DNA of ducks/geese with reptiles (and possibly use the "resurrected" theropod dinosaur dna) in order to bring this group of herbivores back. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Sauropodomorphs - It is possible to bring back prosauropods and sauropods by altering DNA and mixing DNA of birds, reptiles, and large mammals (such as elephants, rhinos, bears, etc.), getting mostly-giant herbivorous prosauropod-like and sauropod-like reptiles. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Scutosaurus - It is possible to recreate scutosaurus by altering the DNA of turtles and mixing DNA of turtles with hippo DNA (for its defences and herbivory), rhino DNA (for some armour and body plan), and bear DNA (for its body plan), creating scutosaurus-like creatures. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Japanese giant runner lizard - it is possible to ressurect the extinct pleistocene giant runner lizard of Japan by altering DNA of modern runner lizards, creating dilophosaurus-size megalosaurus-like carnivorous reptiles. They will be reintroduced to help control the population of native deer, goat-antelope mammals, and other native herbivores. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Rodrigues day gecko - Possible to recreate this species by altering the DNA of a TBA into a Rodrigues day gecko-like creature. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Elginia - It is possible to recreate Elginia by altering modern tortoise DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Anthodon - It is possible to recreate Anthodon by altering DNA of modern turtles. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Pumiliopareia - It is possible to recreate Pumiliopareia by altering modern tortoise DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Bradysaurus - It is possible to recreate Bradysaurus by altering modern tortoise DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Deltavjatia - It is possible to recreate Deltavjatia by altering modern tortoise DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Bunostegos - It is possible to recreate Bunostegos by altering modern tortoise DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Pareiasaurus - It is possible to recreate Pareiasaurus by altering DNA of modern tortoises. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Arganaceras - It is possible to recreate Arganaceras by altering DNA of modern tortoises. It needz to happen in real life.
  • Eunotosaurus - It is possible to recreate Eunotosaurus by altering DNA of modern tortoises. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Procolophon - It is possible to recreate Procolophon by altering DNA of modern tortoises. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Nycteroleter - It is possible to recreate Nycteroleter by altering DNA of modern tortoises. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Nyctiphruretus - It is possible to recreate Nyctiphruretus by altering DNA of modern tortoises! It needs to happen in real life.
  • Owenetta - It is possible to recreate Owenetta by altering DNA of modern tortoises. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Mesosaurus - It is possible to recreate Mesosaurus by altering DNA of modern tortoises. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Stereosternum - It is possible to recreate Stereosternum by altering DNA of modern tortoises. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Ornithosuchus - It is possible to recreate Ornithosuchus by altering DNA of modern crocodiles. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Gracilisuchus - It is possible to recreate Gracilisuchus by a!tering DNA of modern crocodiles. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Poposaurus - It is possible to recreate Poposaurus by altering DNA of modern crocodiles. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Scleromochlus - It is possible to recreate Scleromochlus by altering DNA of modern alligators. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Silesaurus - It is possible to recreate Silesaurus by altering DNA of modern alligators. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Lagosuchus - It is possible to recreate Lagosuchus by altering DNA of modern alligators. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Marasuchus - It is possible to recreate Marasuchus by altering DNA of modern alligators. It needs to happen in real life.
  • T-Rex - Might be possible to recreate the T-Rex by using genetic engineering, by selecting appropriate kinds of animals, such as chickens, crocodiles, etc., until they resemble an extinct tyrannosaurus rex. It needs to happen in real life.

Mammals

  • Woolly mammoth – It is possible to recreate woolly mammoths by extracting DNA of dead woolly mammoths and use Asian elephants as surrogate mothers. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Pyrenean ibex – It is possible to recreate Pyrenean ibexes by extracting its DNA and use a related ibex species as a surrogate mother. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Aurochs – It is possible to recreate aurochs by breeding certain cattle breeds until they become aurochs-like. It needs to happen in real life. They will be introduced to North America.
  • Quagga – It is possible to recreate quaggas by breeding zebras to have quagga-like stripe-less fur and brown colorations. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Thylacine - It is possible to recreate thylacines by extracting its DNA and use a Tasmanian devil as a surrogate mother. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Cave lion – The discovery of two preserved cubs in the Sakha Republic ignited a project to clone the animal.
  • Steppe bison – The discovery of the mummified steppe bison of 9,000 years ago could help people clone the ancient bison species back, even though the steppe bison won't be the first to be "resurrected".
  • Toxodon – In 2015, a group of palaeontologists discovered the DNA of Toxodon and discovered that Toxodons were most closely related to today's horses and rhinos. Some people are planning to bring back Toxodons from extinction using a white rhinoceros as a surrogate mother.
  • Irish elk – It is possible to recreate the Irish elk by extracting DNA from a dead Irish elk and use a red deer as a surrogate mother.
  • Woolly Rhinoceros - It is possible to recreate the woolly rhinoceros by extracting woolly rhinoceros dna and use a Sumatran rhinoceros (its closest living relative) as a surrogate mother.
  • Gigantopithecus – It is possible to recreate this species by turning a modern orangutan into its gigantic prehistoric relative by altering its DNA. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Chalicotheres - It is possible to "resurerect" chalicotheres (including chalicotheriums, ancylotheriums, etc.) by mixing DNA of horses (its living relatives) with some other suitable animals (horse/gorilla for chalicotherium, horse/giraffe/goat for ancylotherium, etc.) to bring this group of herbivorous mammals back. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Brontotheres - It is possible to bring brontotheres (including embulotheriums, etc.) back from extinction by altering rhinoceros DNA to get a brontothere-like herbivore. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Diprotodon - It is possible to "resurrect" diprotodons back from extinction by mixing wombat DNA with other suitable animal DNA, rhinoceros DNA and hippo DNA for its huge size and strong & builky body plan. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Entelodon - It is possible to bring carnivorous tank-like pig-like hoofed predators back by altering the DNA of domsetic pigs and mix them with carnivores like hyenas (giving them sharp teeth for slicing meat) and herbivores like rhinos (giving them large size, builk, and armour), creating entelodon-like carnivorous animals. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Cave bear - It is possible to bring cave bears back to life by altering the DNA of Eurasian brown bears, making the herbivorous cave bear-like peaceful animals. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Vampires - It is possible to bring vampires back from extinction by extracting vampire DNA and use a human as a surrogate mother. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Cetofelis - It is possible to bring cetofelises back from extinction by extracting cetofelis DNA and use a dylanus as a surrogate mother. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Caribbean monk seal - It is possible to bring this species back to life by using a Hawaiian monk seal as a surrogate mother. It needsto happen in real life. 
  • Mexican grizzly bear - It is possible to bring Mexican grizzly bears back to life by altering the DNA of grizzly bears, making the mostly-herbivorous Mexican grizzly bear-like animals. It needs to happen in real life.
  • California grizzly bear - It is possible to bring California grizzly bears back to life by altering the DNA of grizzly bears, making the herbivorous California grizzly bear-like peaceful animals. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Japanese sea lion - It is possible to bring Japanese sea lion back by using a California sea lion as a surrogate mother. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Arsinoitherium - It is possible to "resurrect" the Eocene arsinoitherium by altering DNA of elephants (for the elephant's family tree) and mixing it with rhino's DNA (for its rhino-like appearance), creating an amphibious arsinotherium-like herbivorous mammal. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Elasmotherium - It is possible to bring the Pleistocene elasmotherium back to life by altering the DNA of Sumatran rhinos (for most of its features) and mixing them with African elephant's DNA (for its size), creating woolly tundra-living elasmotherium-like rhinos. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Dire wolf - May be possible to recreate the long-extinct dire wolves by altering DNA of gray wolves and turning them unto slightly larger dire wolf-like carnivores, possibly reintroducing new dire wolves into California, Arizona, Nevada, and Oregon. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Smilodon - May be possible to recreate the long-extinct saber-toothed tigers (aka saber-toothed cats) by altering the DNA of cougars and turning them into a large saber-toothed tiger-like creature. Scientists agreed that they should name one "Soto" and another one "Diego". This needs to happen in real life.
  • Steller's sea cow - It is possible to recreate this species by altering a modern sea cow's DNA to be the size of a Steller's sea cow and resemble a Steller's sea cow. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Dorudon - It is possible to recreate dorudons (small ancient whales) by altering DNA of porpoises and creating dorudon-like whales. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Short-faced kangaroo - It is possible to resurrect this creature by using a kangaroo species as a surrogate mother. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Giant koala - It is possible to recreate the giant koala (dog-sized extinct koalas) by altering the DNA of modern koalas. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Basilosaurus - It is possible to recreate basilosaurus by altering the DNA of porpoises and creating gigantic sperm whale-size carnivorous basilosaurus-like whales. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Ambulocetus - It is possible to recreate ambulocetus by altering ahd reversing the DNA of dolphins, creating amphibious mammalian crocodile-like carnivorous ambulocetus-like animals. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Teleoceras - It is possible to recreate teleoceras by altering dna of modern black rhinoceroses, turning them into amphibious teleoceras-like rhinoceroses. Scientists agreed they are introducing them into North America. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Thylacoleo - It is possible to recreate this species by using either a Tasmanian devil or a tiger quoll as a surrogate mother. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Hyaenodonts - It is possible to recreate this group of carnivorous mammals by altering the DNA of big cats, dogs, and bears, and mix them together, creating hyaenodont-like creatures. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Indricotherium - It is possible to recreate giraffe-like giant rhinos by altering the DNA of modern rhinos, creating indricotherium-like browsing mammals. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Indian giant dylanus - It is possible to recreate the extinct Inidan giant dylanus (the largest dylanus that has ever lived) by extracting its DNA and use a Domestic Dylanus as a surrogate mother. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Glyptodon - It is possible to recreate this species by mixing the DNA of an armadillo and a tortoise, thus creating a glyptodont-like creature. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Andrewsarchus - It is possible to recreate the long-extinct Andrewsarchus by mixing the DNA of pigs, sheep, bears, and wolves, creating an Andrewsarchus-like carnivorous creature. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Steropodon - It is possible to recreate this egg-laying mammal by reversing the DNA of a modern platypus, thus turning it into a steropodont-like creature. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Thylacosmilus - It is possible to bring the prehistoric thylacosmilus by mixing the DNA of opossums and big cats, creating leopard-size saber-toothed carnivorous thylacosmilus-like predators. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Propalaeotherium - Can be possible to bring propalaeotherium back by mixing the DNA of horses (the base), rhinoceroses (for three-toed feet), and house cats (for their size), creating browsing cat-sized propalaeorherium-like herbivores. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Brontops - May be possible to recreate this extinct rhino species by altering the DNA of an African rhinoceros into a Brontops-like creature. Scientists agreed that they are introducing them into the grasslands of North America. It needs to happen in real life.
  • North African elephant - It is possible to bring this "tameable" African elephant species back to life by altering DNA of modern African elephants. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Atlas wild ass - It is possible to recreate this African wild ass subspecies by altering DNA of modern African wild asses. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Megaladapis - It is possible to recreate this koala-like lemur by altering DNA of modern lemurs. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Palaeopropithecus - It is possible to recreate this lemur species by altering modern lemur DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Archaeoindris - It is possible to recreate this gorilla-sized herbivorous lemur by altering DNA of modern lemurs. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Pachylemur - It is possible to recreate this lemur species by altering DNA of modern red ruffed lemurs. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Archaeolemur - It is possible to recreate this species of monkey-like lemur by altering DNA of modern lemurs. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Hadropirhecus - It is possible to recreate this monkey-like lemur species by altering DNA of modern lemurs. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Sardinian pika - It is possible to recreate this giant pika by altering DNA of modern pikas. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Sivatherium - It is possible to bring sivatheriums back by altering okapi DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Chinese elephant - It is possible to recreate this Asian elephant subspecies by altering DNA of modern Asian elephants. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Megatapirus - It is possible to recreate this giant tapir of Asia by altering DNA of modern Malayan tapirs. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Stegodon - It is possible to recreate this elephant relative by altering DNA of modern African elephants. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Palaeoloxodon - It is possible to recreate many species of palaeoloxodons (including one species that was the largest land mammal on earth, bigger than indricotheres) by altering DNA of modern Asian elephants. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Japanese wolf - It is possible to recreate Japanese wolves (including Honshū wolves) by altering DNA of modern gray wolves. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Japanese river otter - It is possible to bring this otter species back by altering Asian river otter DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Northern Sumatran rhinoceros - It is possible to recreate this Sumatran rhinoceros subspecies by altering DNA of modern Sumatran rhinoceroses. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Kouprey - It is possible to bring this bovine back by altering DNA of modern gaur. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Vietnamese Javan rhinoceros - It is possible to bring this Javan rhinoceros subspecies back by altering DNA of modern Javan rhinoceroses. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Giant aye-aye - It is possible to bring this large aye-aye species back by altering DNA of modern aye-ayes. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Giant fossa - It is possible to recreate giant fossas by altering DNA of modern fossas. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Eastern cougar - It is possible to recreate this extinct cougar subspecies by extracting DNA of dead Eastern cougars and use North American cougars as surrogate mothers. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Javan tiger - It is possible to recreate this tiger species by extracting DNA of dead Javan tigers and use Chinese tigers as surrogate mothers. It needs to happen in real life.

Non-Mammal Synapsids

  • Thrinaxodon - It is possible to recreate thrinaxodon by reversing the DNA of modern platypuses, creating thrinaxodon-like creatures. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Diictodon - It is possible to recreate diictodons by reversing the DNA of modern platypuses, creating diictodon-like creatures. The scientists agreed that the diictodons can be kept as pets due to diictodon's popularity in BBC's Walking With Prehistoric Monsters and Primeval series. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Lystrosaurus - It is possible to recreate lystrosaurus by reversing the DNA of modern platypuses, creating herbivorous lystrosaurus-like creatures. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Dicynodon - It is possible to recreate lystrosaurus by reversing the DNA of modern platypuses, creating herbivorous dicynodon-like creatures. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Estemmenosuchus - It is possible to recreate estemmenosuchus by reversing the DNA of modern platypuses, creating huge, omnivorous estemmenosuchus-like creatures. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Styracocephalus - It is possible to recreate styracocephalus by reversing the DNA of modern platypuses, creating large, herbivorous styracocephalus-like creatures. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Tapinocephalus - It is possible to recreate tapinocephalus by reversing the DNA of modern platypuses, creating huge, herbivorous, tapinocephalus-like creatures. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Moschops - It is possible to recreate moschops by reversing the DNA of modern platypuses, creating huge, herbivorous moschops-like creatures. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Edaphosaurus - It is possible to bring edaphosaurus back by reversing the DNA of modern platypuses, creating large herbivorous edaphosaurus-like creatures. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Dimetrodon - It is possible recreate Dimetrodon by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Angelosaurus - It is possible to recreate Angelosaurus by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Eothyris - It is possible to recreate Eothyris by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Ennatosaurus - It is possible to recreate Ennatosaurus by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Lupeosaurus - It is possible to recreate Lupeosaurus by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Ianthasaurus - It is possible to recreate Ianthasaurus by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Glaucosaurus - It is possible to recreate Glaucosaurus by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Varanosaurus - It is possible to recreate Varanosaurus by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Ophiacodon - It is possible to recreate Ophiacodon by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Varanops - It is possible to recreate Varanops by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Pantelosaurus - It is possible to recreate Pantelosaurus by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Ctenospondylus - It is possible to recreate Ctenospondylus by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Secodontosaurus - It is possible to recreate Secodontosaurus by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Sphenacodon - It is possible to recreate Sphenacodon by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Inostrancevia - It is possible to recreate Inostrancevia by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Anteosaurus - It is possible to recreate Anteosaurus by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Scylacosaurus - It is possible to recreate Scylacosaurus by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Moschorhinus - It is possible to recreate Moschorhinus by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Euchambersia - It is possible to recreate Euchambersia by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Ichibengops - It is possible to recreate Ichibengops by altering platypus DNA. It needs to happen in real life.

Amphibians

  • Rabbs' fringe-limbed tree frog – Since the last individual died in September 2016, scientists decide to bring this species back to life. Recreating this species is possible to resurrect by extracting DNA of Toughie (a frog who died in September 2016) and use a TBA as a surrogate mother. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Koolasuchus - It is possible to recreate a koolasuchus by altering the DNA of Japanese giant slamanders. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Diplocaulus - It is possible to recreate Diplocaulus by altering DNA of modern newts. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Rhynchonkos - It is possible to recreate Rhynchonkos by altering DNA of modern newts. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Phlegethontia - It is possible to recreate Phlegethontia by altering DNA of modern newts. It nesds to happen in real life.
  • Lysorophus - It is possible to recreate Lysorophus by altering DNA of modern newts. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Adelospondylus - It is possible to recreate Adelospondylus by altering DNA of modern newts. It needs fo happen in real life.
  • Ophiderpeton - It is possible to recreate Ophiderpeton by altering DNA of modern newts. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Brachydectes - It is possible to recreate Brachydectes by alterimg DNA of modern newts. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Scincosaurus - It is possible to recreate Scincosaurus by altering DNA of modern newts. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Urocordylus - It is possible to recreate Urocordylus by altering DNA of modern newts. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Proterogyrinus - It is possible to recreate Proterogyrinus by altering DNA of modern newts. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Rhinesuchus - It is possible to recreate Rhinesuchus by altering DNA of modern Japanese giant salamanders. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Crassigyrinus - It is possible to recreate Crassigyrinus by altering DNA of modern newts. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Edops - It is possible to recreate Edops by altering DNA of modern newts. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Parioxys - It is possible to recreate Parioxys by altering DNA of modern newts. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Plagiosaurus - It is possible to recreate Plagiosaurus by altering DNA of modern newts. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Koskinonodon - It is possible to recreate Koskinonodon by altering DNA of modern newts. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Metoposaurus - It is possible to recreate Metoposaurus by altering DNA of modern newts. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Prionosuchus - It is possible to recreate Prionosuchus by altering DNA of modern newts. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Archegosaurus - It is possible to recreate Archegosaurus by altering DNA of modern newts. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Beelzebufo - It is possible to recreate Beelzebufo by altering DNA of modern horned frogs. It needs to happen in real life.

Fish

  • Leedsichthys - It is possible to recreate a long-extinct leedsichthys (the largest fish on earth) by altering the dna of the freshwater bowfin fish, turning it into a giant, saltwater-living, filterfeeding fish that resembles an ancient leedsichthys. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Megalodon - It is possible to recreate a long-extinct megalodon by altering the DNA of a great white shark, turning it into its larger and builkier counterpart, a giant shark that was the largest carnivorous fish on earth. It needs to happen in reality. There are also sightings of megalodons today, although none are proven.
  • Xiphactinus - It is possible to recreate a long-extinct xiphactinus by altering the DNA of a modern tarpon, turning he tarpon into a great white shark-size carnivorous fish. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Dunkleosteus - It's possible to recreate dunkleosteus by altering the DNA of modern sharks and other fish and mix them together, creating an orca-size carnivorous armoured Dunkleosteus-like fish. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Megapiranha - It is possible to recreate this carnivorous river fish by supersizing a modern piranha into a large Megapiranha-like creature. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Many extinct coelacanth subspecies - It is possible to recreate these extinct subspecies of coelacanth by altering the DNA of modern coelacanths. Needs to happen in real life.
  • Cephalaspis - It is possible to recreate the extinct Cephalaspis by altering e DNA of modern lampreys. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Hyneria - It is possible to recreate Hynerias by altering and mixing both DNA of coelacanths and lungfishes together, creating larger Hyneria-like carnivorous fish. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Pituriaspis - It is possible to recreate Pituriaspis by altering the DNA of modern lampreys. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Neeyambaspis - It is possible to recreate Neeyambaspis by altering the DNA of modern lampreys. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Haikouichthys - It is possible to recreate Haikouichthys by altering the DNA of modern lampreys. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Zhongjianichthys - It is possible to recreate Zhongjianichthys by altering the DNA of modern lampreys. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Myllokunmingia - It is possible to recreate Myllokunmingia by altering the DNA of modern lampreys. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Arandaspis - It is possible to recreate Arandaspis by altering the DNA of modern lampreys. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Astraspis - It is possible to recreate Astraspis by altering the DNA of modern lampreys. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Sacabambaspis - It is possible to recreate Sacabambaspis by altering the DNA of modern lampreys. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Pteraspis - It is possible to recreate Pteraspis by altering the DNA of modern lampreys. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Panamintaspis - It is possible to recreate Panamintaspis by altering the DNA of modern lampreys. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Protopteraspis - It is possible to recreate Protopteraspis by altering the DNA of modern lampreys. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Lepidaspis - It is possible to recreate Lepidaspis by altering the DNA of modern lampreys. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Eusthenopteron - It is possible to recreate Eusthenopteron by altering and mixing both DNA of coelacanths and lungfishes together, creating a somewhat large Eusthenopteron-like carnivorous fish. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Onychodus - It is possible to recreate Onychodus by altering and mixing both DNA of coelacanths and lungfishes together, creating a small Onychodus-like carnivorous fish. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Rhizodus - It is possible to recreate Rhizodus by altering and mixing both DNA of coelacanths and lungfishes together, creating a giant Rhizodus-like carnivorous fish. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Barameda It is possible to recreate Barameda by altering and mixing both DNA of coelacanths and lungfishes together, creating a giant Barameda-like carnivorous fish. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Panderichthys - It is possible to recreate Panderichthys by altering and mixing both DNA of coelacanths lungfishes, and newts together, creating a small Panderichthys-like fish. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Tiktaalik - It is possible to recreate Tiktaalik by altering and mixing both DNA of coelacanths lungfishes, and newts together, creating a large Tiktaalik-like fish. It needs to happen in real life.

Invertebrates

  • Arthropleura - One of the largest land invertebrates on earth, it is possible to resurrect arthropleuras by altering millipede DNA, making arthropleura-size arthropleura-like peaceful herbivorous arthropods. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Brontoscorpio - One of the largest semi-terrestrial scorpion on land, it is possible to bring this scorpion back by altering modern scorpion DNA, creating large, brontoscorpio-like, lunged and gilled scorpions. It needs to happen in reality.
  • Pterygotus - It is possible to recreate the second largest arthropod by altering modern scorpion DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Giant Eocene Ants - It is possible to recreate giant ants from the Eocene by altering DNA of bullet ants. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Meganeura - It is possible to recreate Carboniferous giant dragonflies by altering DNA of modern dragonflies. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Giant Carboniferous Scorpion - It is possible to recreate giant Carboniferous scorpions by altering modern scorpion DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Ammonites - It is possible to recreate ammonites by altering the DNA of modern nautiluses. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Orthrocone - It is possible to recreate orthrocones by altering DNA of modern nautiluses. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Giant Carboniferous Spiders - It is possible to recreate giant spiders by altering DNA of modern spiders. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Giant Carboniferous Cockroach - It is possible to recreate giant Carboniferous cockroaches by altering DNA of modern cockroaches. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Giant Carboniferous Mayfly - It is possible to recreate giant Carboniferous mayflies by altering DNA of modern mayflies. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Trilobite - It is possible to recreate trilobites by altering DNA of modern pillbugs. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Giant Carboniferous Centipede - Unlike Arthropleuras, centipedes of the Carboniferous were carnivores. It is possible to recreate them by altering DNA of modern centipedes. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Giant Carboniferous Beetle - It is possible to recreate giant Carboniferous beetles by altering modern beetle DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Giant Triassic Locust - It is possible to recreate giant rat-size Triassic locusts by altering DNA of modern locusts. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Cretaceous Giant Spider Crab - It is possible to recreate giant spider crabs from the Cretaceous by altering DNA of modern Japanese spider crabs. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Anomalocaris - It is possible to recreate this first superpredator by altering DNA of modern lobsters. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Giant Triassic Damselfly - It is possible to recreate dragonfly-size Triassic damselflies by altering modern damselfly DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Jurassic Termite - It is possible to recreate early and primitive termites by altering DNA of modern termites. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Mantis-like Cockroach - It is possible to recreate this animal from Cretaceous Asia by altering DNA of modern cockroaches. It needs to happen in real life.
  • Early Cretaceous Flea - It is possible to recreate mite-like fleas from the Cretaceous by altering modern flea DNA. It needs to happen in real life.
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