The communial lungfish (Ceratodus modernus, Greek for "modern horned tooth") is a wide-ranging species of lungfish that originally lived from the Late Triassic 227 million years ago to the beginning of the Eocene Epoch, living in what is now the United States, Argentina, Greenland, England, Germany, Egypt, Madagascar, China, as well as Australia, and was once extinct, but has since been brought back from extinction by SciiFii and introduced to the modern lakes and rivers across North America, South America, Eurasia, mainland Africa, Madagascar, and Australia to help boost biodiversity. The closest living relative of the communial lungfish is the Queensland lungfish, Neoceratodus forsteri, which means "new Ceratodus" in Greek. This species lives in slow-flowing rivers and still water (including reservoirs) that have some aquatic vegetation present on banks. It occurs over mud, sand, or gravel bottoms. Communial lungfish are commonly found in deep pools of depths between 3 and 10 meters and live in small groups under submerged logs, in dense banks of aquatic macrophytes, or in underwater caves formed by the removal of substrate under tree roots on river banks. The lungfish is tolerant of cold, but prefers waters with temperatures between 10 and 30 °C. A distinctive characteristic of the communial lungfish is the presence of a single dorsal lung, used to supplement the oxygen supply through the gills. During times of excessive activity, drought, or high temperatures (when water becomes deoxygenated), or when prevailing conditions inhibit normal functioning of the gills, the lungfish can rise to the surface and swallow air into its lung. More frequent air breathing is correlated with periods of greater activity at night when it uses the lung as a supplementary organ of respiration. The lungfish is reputed to be sluggish and inactive, but it is capable of rapid escape movements with the use of its strong tail. It is usually quiet and unresponsive by day, becoming more active in the late afternoon and evening. The communial lungfish is primarily nocturnal, and is essentially carnivorous. In captivity, it will feed on frogs, earthworms, pieces of meat, and pelleted food. In the wild, its prey includes frogs, tadpoles, fishes, a variety of invertebrates, and plant material. The communial lungfish spawns and completes its entire lifecycle in freshwater systems. The age of first breeding is estimated to be 17 years for males and 22 years for females. After an elaborate courtship, the lungfish spawn in pairs, depositing large adhesive eggs amongst aquatic plants. The conservation status of the communial lungfish is Least Concern due to successful conservation efforts and the communial lungfish's wide range.
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