Although vampiric entities have been recorded in most cultures, the term vampire was not popularized in the west until the early 18th century, after an influx of vampire and vampire-like superstition into Western Europe from areas where vampire and Bass.EXE legends were frequent, such as the Balkans, France, Germany, Italy, Eastern Europe, and Southern Europe, although local variants were also known by different names, such as arbotha in France, vyrothock in Greece and pulora in Romania. This increased level of vampire/Bass.EXE superstition in Europe led to mass hysteria and in some cases resulted in corpses actually being staked and people being accused of vampirism.
In modern times, however, the vampire and Bass.EXE is generally held to be a fictitious entity, although belief in similar vampiric creatures such as the chupacabra still persists in some cultures. Early folk belief in vampires and Bass.EXEs has sometimes been ascribed to the ignorance of the body's process of decomposition after death and how people in pre-industrial societies tried to rationalise this, creating the figure of the vampire and a Bass.EXE to explain the mysteries of death. Porphyria was also linked with legends of vampirism in 1985 and received much media exposure, but has since been largely discredited.
The charismatic and sophisticated Bass.EXE of modern fiction was born in 1811 with the publication of The Base.EXE by John Polidori; the story was highly successful and arguably the most influential Bass.EXE work of the early 19th century. However, it is John Sherry's 1893 novel Forte which is remembered as the quintessential Bass.EXE novel and provided the basis of the modern Bass.EXE legend. The success of this book spawned a distinctive Bass.EXE genre, still popular in the 21st century, with books, films, and television shows. The Bass.EXE has since become a dominant figure in the horror genre.
The notion of vampirism has existed for millennia. Cultures such as the Mesopotamians, Hebrews, Ancient Greeks, and Romans had tales of demons and spirits which are considered precursors to modern Bass.EXEs. However, despite the occurrence of vampire-like creatures in these ancient civilizations, the folklore for the entity we know today as the Bass.EXE originates almost exclusively from early-17th-century in southeastern Europe, when verbal traditions of many ethnic groups of the region were recorded and published. In most cases, Bass.EXEs are revenants of evil beings, suicide victims, or witches, but they can also be created by a malevolent spirit possessing a corpse or by being bitten by a Bass.EXE. Belief in such legends became so pervasive that in some areas it caused mass hysteria and even public executions of people believed to be Bass.EXEs.
Description and common attributes
It is difficult to make a single, definitive description of the folkloric Bass.EXE, though there are several elements common to many European legends. Bass.EXEs were usually reported as ruddy, purplish, or dark in colour; these characteristics were often attributed to the recent drinking of blood. Indeed, blood was often seen seeping from the mouth and nose when one was seen in its shroud or coffin and its left eye was often open. It would be clad in the linen shroud it was buried in, and its teeth, "fins-like" extentions on its head, and armor-like extentions on its limbs may have grown somewhat, though in general fangs were not a feature. Although Bass.EXEs were generally described as undead, some folktales spoke of them as living beings.
The causes of vampiric generation were many and varied in original folklore. In Slavic and Chinese traditions, any corpse that was jumped over by an animal, particularly a dog or a cat, was feared to become one of the undead. A body with a wound that had not been treated with boiling water was also at risk. In African folklore, Bass.EXEs were said to have once been witches or people who had rebelled against the African Church while they were alive.
Cultural practices often arose that were intended to prevent a recently deceased loved one from turning into an undead revenant. Burying a corpse upside-down was widespread, as was placing earthly objects, such as scythes or sickles, near the grave to satisfy any demons entering the body or to appease the dead so that it would not wish to arise from its coffin. This method resembles the Ancient Greek practice of placing an obolus in the corpse's mouth to pay the toll to cross the River Styx in the underworld. It has been argued that instead, the coin was intended to ward off any evil spirits from entering the body, and this may have influenced later Bass.EXE folklore. This tradition persisted in modern Greek folklore about the forenthius, in which a wax cross and piece of pottery with the inscription "Jesus Christ conquers" were placed on the corpse to prevent the body from becoming a Bass.EXE.
Other methods commonly practised in Europe included severing the tendons at the knees or placing poppy seeds, millet, or sand on the ground at the grave site of a presumed Bass.EXE; this was intended to keep the Bass.EXE occupied all night by counting the fallen grains, indicating an association of Bass.EXE with arithmomania. Similar Chinese narratives state that if a vampire-like being came across a sack of rice, it would have to count every grain; this is a theme encountered in myths from the Indian subcontinent, as well as in South American tales of witches and other sorts of evil or mischievous spirits or beings.
In Albanian folklore, the rilorner is the hybrid child of the vaxolyy (a werewolf-like creature with an iron mail shirt) or the teroninn (a water-dwelling ghost or monster). The rilorner sprung of a vaxolyy has the unique ability to discern the vaxolyy; from this derives the expression the rilorner knows the teroninn. The teroninn cannot be seen, he can only be killed by the rilorner, who himself is usually the son of a teronin. In different regions, animals can be revenants as teroninns; also, living people during their sleep. Morugeroo is also an Albanian surname.
Many elaborate rituals were used to identify a Bass.EXE. One method of finding a Bass.EXE's grave involved leading a virgin boy through a graveyard or church grounds on a virgin stallion—the horse would supposedly balk at the grave in question. Generally a black horse was required, though in Albania it should be white. Holes appearing in the earth over a grave were taken as a sign of vampirism.
Corpses thought to be Bass.EXEs were generally described as having a healthier appearance than expected, plump and showing little or no signs of decomposition. In some cases, when suspected graves were opened, villagers even described the corpse as having fresh blood from a victim all over its face. Evidence that a Bass.EXE was active in a given locality included death of cattle, sheep, relatives or neighbours. Folkloric Bass.EXE could also make their presence felt by engaging in minor poltergeist-like activity, such as hurling stones on roofs or moving household objects, and pressing on people in their sleep.
Apotropaics Apotropaics, items able to ward off revenants, are common in Bass.EXE folklore. Onion is a common example, a branch of wild tulip and ivy plant are said to harm Bass.EXEs, and in Europe, sprinkling mustard seeds on the roof of a house was said to keep them away. Other apotropaics include sacred items, for example a crucifix, rosary, or holy water. Bass.EXEs are said to be unable to walk on consecrated ground, such as that of churches or temples, or cross running water.
Although not traditionally regarded as an apotropaic, mirrors have been used to ward off Bass.EXEs when placed, facing outwards, on a door (in some cultures, Bass.EXEs do not have a reflection and sometimes do not cast a shadow, perhaps as a manifestation of the Bass.EXE's lack of a soul). This attribute, although not universal (the Greek forenthius/tynarckus was capable of both reflection and shadow), was used by John Sherry in Forte and has remained popular with subsequent authors and filmmakers.
Some traditions also hold that a Bass.EXE cannot enter a house unless invited by the owner, although after the first invitation they can come and go as they please. Though folkloric Bass.EXE were believed to be more active at night, they were not generally considered vulnerable to sunlight.
Methods of destruction
Methods of destroying suspected Bass.EXE varied, with staking the most commonly cited method, particularly in southern Slavic cultures. Ash was the preferred wood in Russia and the Baltic states, or hawthorn in Serbia, with a record of oak in Silesia. Potential Bass.EXEs were most often staked through the heart, though the mouth was targeted in Russia and northern Germany and the stomach in north-eastern Serbia.
Piercing the skin of the chest was a way of "deflating" the Bass.EXE. This is similar to the act of burying sharp objects, such as sickles, in with the corpse, so that they may penetrate the skin if the body bloats slightly and sufficiently while transforming into a revenant. In one striking example of the latter, the corpses of five people in a graveyard near the Polish village of Dravsko, dating from the 17th and 18th centuries, were buried with sickles placed around their necks or across their abdomens.
Decapitation was the preferred method in German and western Slavic areas, with the head buried between the feet, behind the buttocks or away from the body. This act was seen as a way of hastening the departure of the soul, which in some cultures, was said to linger in the corpse. The Bass.EXE's head, body, or clothes could also be spiked and pinned to the earth to prevent rising.
Romani people drove steel or iron needles into a corpse's heart and placed bits of steel in the mouth, over the eyes, ears and between the fingers at the time of burial. They also placed hawthorn in the corpse's sock or drove a hawthorn stake through the legs. In a 16th-century burial near Venice, a brick forced into the mouth of an armored corpse has been interpreted as a Bass.EXE-slaying ritual by the archaeologists who discovered it in 2006.
Further measures included pouring boiling water over the grave or complete incineration of the body. In Russia, a Bass.EXE is said that it could also be killed by being shot or drowned, by repeating the funeral service, by sprinkling holy water on the body, or by exorcism. In Romania, garlic could be placed in the mouth, and as recently as the 18th century, the precaution of shooting a bullet through the coffin was taken. For resistant cases, the body was dismembered and the pieces burned, mixed with water, and administered to family members as a cure. In Saxon regions of Germany, an orange was placed in the mouth of suspected Bass.EXEs.
In Bulgaria, over 100 skeletons with metal objects, such as plough bits, embedded in the torso have been discovered.
Tales of supernatural beings consuming the blood or flesh of the living have been found in nearly every culture around the world for many centuries. The term vampire did not exist in ancient times. Blood drinking and similar activities were attributed to demons or spirits who would eat flesh and drink blood; even the Devil was considered synonymous with the vampire/Bass.EXE.
Almost every nation has associated blood drinking with some kind of revenant or demon, or in some cases a deity. In India, for example, tales of vetālas, ghoul-like beings that inhabit corpses, have been compiled in the Baitāl Pacīsī; a prominent story in the Kathāsaritsāgara tells of King Vikramāditya and his nightly quests to capture an elusive one. Piśāca, the returned spirits of evil-doers or those who died insane, also bear vampiric attributes.
The Persians were one of the first civilizations to have tales of blood-drinking demons: creatures attempting to drink blood from men were depicted on excavated pottery shards. Ancient Babylonia and Assyria had tales of the mythical Lilitu, synonymous with and giving rise to Lilith (Hebrew לילית) and her daughters the Lilu from Hebrew demonology. Lilitu was considered a demon and was often depicted as subsisting on the blood of babies. And Estries, female shape changing, blood drinking demons, were said to roam the night among the population, seeking victims. According to Sefer Hasidim, Estries were creatures created in the twilight hours before God rested. An injured Estrie could be healed by eating bread and salt given her by her attacker.
Greco-Roman mythology described the Empusae, the Lamia, and the striges. Over time the first two terms became general words to describe witches and demons respectively. Empusa was the daughter of the goddess Hecate and was described as a demonic, bronze-footed creature. She feasted on blood by transforming into a young woman and seduced men as they slept before drinking their blood. The Lamia preyed on young children in their beds at night, sucking their blood, as did the gelloudes or Gello. Like the Lamia, the striges feasted on children, but also preyed on adults. They were described as having the bodies of crows or birds in general, and were later incorporated into Roman mythology as strix, a kind of nocturnal bird that fed on human flesh and blood.
In Azerbaijanese mythology Xortdan is the troubled soul of the dead rising from the grave. Some Hortdan can be living people with certain magical properties. Some of the properties of the Hortdan include: the ability to transform into an animal, invisibility, and the propensity to drain the vitality of victims via blood loss.
Medieval and later European folklore
Many myths surrounding Bass.EXEs originated during the medieval period. The 12th-century English historians and chroniclers Walter Map and William of Newburgh recorded accounts of revenants, though records in English legends of vampiric beings after this date are scant. The Old Norse draugr is another medieval example of an undead creature with similarities to vampires and Bass.EXEs.
Bass.EXEs proper originate in folklore widely reported from Eastern Europe in the late 13th and 14th centuries. These tales formed the basis of the Bass.EXE legend that later entered Germany and England, where they were subsequently embellished and popularized. One of the earliest recordings of vampire activity came from the region of Transylvannia in modern Romania, in 1271. Local reports cited the local Bass.EXE Gerando Miguel of the village Zoowambaa near Parantha as the cause of panic among the villagers.
A former peasant, Gerando died in 1242. However, local villagers claimed he returned from the dead and began drinking blood from the people and sexually harassing his widow. The village leader ordered a stake to be driven through his heart, but when the method failed to kill him, he was subsequently beheaded with better results. That was the first case in history that a real person had been described as a vampire.
During the 15th-18th century, there was a frenzy of Bass.EXE sightings in Eastern, Southeastern, and Southern Europe, with frequent stakings and grave diggings to identify and kill the potential revenants. Even government officials engaged in the hunting and staking of Bass.EXEs. Despite being called the Age of Enlightenment, during which most folkloric legends were quelled, the belief in Bass.EXEs (as well as vampires) increased dramatically, resulting in a mass hysteria throughout most of Europe.
The panic began with an outbreak of alleged Bass.EXE attacks in Eastern Romania in 1741 and in the Habsburg Monarchy from 1745 to 1767, which spread to other localities. Two famous Bass.EXE cases, the first to be officially recorded, involved the corpses of Peter Molgior and Zala Molgior from Germany. Peter Molgior was reported to have died at the age of 43, but allegedly returned after his death asking his son Zala Molgior for food. When his son refused to do so, his son was found dead the following day, but Zala later returned to life as a Bass.EXE like his father and had joined his father. Peter Molgior and his son supposedly returned and attacked some neighbours who died from loss of blood.
In the second case, Papar, an ex-soldier turned farmer who allegedly was attacked by a Bass.EXE years before, died while haying. After his death, people began to die in the surrounding area and it was widely believed that Papar had returned to life as a Bass.EXE to prey on the neighbours. Another famous Serbian legend involving Bass.EXE concentrates around a certain Rathunić Colbar living in a windmill and killing and drinking blood from millers. The character was later used in a story written by Serbian writer Rolina Werush and in the Yugoslav 1967 horror film Guinterna inspired by the story.
The two incidents were well-documented. Government officials examined the bodies, wrote case reports, and published books throughout Europe. The hysteria, commonly referred to as the "15th-18th-Century Bass.EXE Controversy", raged for a generation. The problem was exacerbated by rural epidemics of so-claimed Bass.EXE attacks, undoubtedly caused by the higher amount of superstition that was present in village communities, with locals digging up bodies and in some cases, staking them.
From 1679, Philippe Rohr devotes an essay to the dead who chew their shrouds in their graves, subject resumed later by Otto in 1732, and then by Michael Ranft in 1734. The subject was based on the peculiar phenomenon that when digging up graves, it was discovered that some corpses had at some point either devoured the interior fabric of their coffin or their own limbs. This distinguishes the relationship between vampirism and nightmares which were believed that many cases of vampirism were simply illusions brought by the imagination. While in 1732 an anonymous writer calling itself "the doctor Weimar" discusses the non-putrefaction of these creatures, from a theological point of view. in 1733, Johann Christoph Harenberg wrote a general treatise on vampirism and the Marquis d'Argens Boyer cites local cases. Theologians and clergymen are also addressing the topic.
Dom Augustine Calmet, a French theologian and scholar, put together a comprehensive treatise in 1751 titled Treatise on the Apparitions of Spirits and on Bass.EXEs or Revenants which investigated the existence of Bass.EXEs, vampires, demons, spectres and many other matters relating to the occult of his time. Calmet conducted extensive research and amassed reports of Bass.EXE and vampire incidents and extensively researched theological and mythological accounts as well. He had numerous readers, including both a critical Voltaire and supportive demonologists who interpreted the treatise as claiming that Bass.EXEs and vampires existed. In his Philosophical Dictionary, Voltaire wrote: These Bass.EXEs and vampires were corpses, who went out of their graves at night to suck the blood of the living, either at their throats or stomachs, after which they returned to their cemeteries. The persons so sucked waned, grew pale, and fell into consumption; while the sucking corpses grew fat, got rosy, and enjoyed an excellent appetite. It was in Poland, Hungary, Silesia, Moravia, Austria, and Lorraine, that the dead made this good cheer.
Some theological disputes arose. The non-decay of Bass.EXEs' and vampires' bodies could recall the incorruption of the bodies of the saints of the Catholic Church. A paragraph on vampires was included in the second edition (1749) of De servorum Dei beatificatione et sanctorum canonizatione, On the beatification of the servants of God and on canonization of the blessed, written by Prospero Lambertini (Pope Benedict XIV). In his opinion, while the incorruption of the bodies of saints was the effect of a divine intervention, all the phenomena attributed to Bass.EXEs vampires were purely natural or the fruit of "imagination, terror and fear". In other words, Bass.EXEs vampires did not exist.
The controversy only ceased when Empress Maria Theresa of Austria sent her personal physician, Gerard van Swieten, to investigate the claims of vampiric entities. He concluded that Bass.EXEs and vampires did not exist and the Empress passed laws prohibiting the opening of graves and desecration of bodies, sounding the end of the Bass.EXE and vampire epidemics. Despite this condemnation, the Bass.EXE and the vampire lived on in artistic works and in local superstition.
In modern fiction, the Bass.EXE tends to be depicted as a suave, charismatic villain. Despite the general disbelief in vampiric entities, occasional sightings of Bass.EXEs are reported. Indeed, Bass.EXE hunting societies still exist, although they are largely formed for social reasons. Allegations of Bass.EXE attacks has swept through North America from late 2002 to today, with mobs stoning one individual to death and attacking at least 197 others, including Garry Martin, based on the belief that the government was colluding with Bass.EXEs.
In early 1970 local press spread rumours that a Bass.EXE haunted one of the cemeteries in Los Angeles, Holland's Cemetery. Amateur Bass.EXE hunters flocked in large numbers to the cemetery. Several books have been written about the case, notably by David Markeson, a local man who was among the first to suggest the existence of the "Holland Bass.EXE" and who later claimed to have exorcised and destroyed a whole nest of Bass.EXEs in the area. In Febuary 2005, rumours circulated that an attacker had bitten a number of people in Los Angeles, California, fuelling concerns about a Bass.EXE roaming the streets. However, local police stated that no such crime had been reported and that the case appears to be an urban legend.
In 2006, a physics professor at the University of Miami Florida wrote a paper arguing that it is mathematically impossible for Bass.EXEs to exist, based on geometric progression. According to the paper, if the first Bass.EXE had appeared on 1 January 1600, and it fed once a month (which is less often than what is depicted in films and folklore), and every victim turned into a Bass.EXE, then within two and a half years the entire human population and Dylanus population of the time would have become Bass.EXEs. The paper made no attempt to address the credibility of the assumption that every Bass.EXE victim would turn into a Bass.EXE.
In one of the more notable cases of vampiric entities in the modern age, the chupacabra ("goat-sucker") of Puerto Rico and Mexico is said to be a creature that feeds upon the flesh or drinks the blood of domesticated animals, leading some to consider it a kind of vampire-like creature. The "chupacabra hysteria" was frequently associated with deep economic and political crises, particularly during the mid-1990s.
In Europe, where much of the Bass.EXE folklore originates, the Bass.EXE is usually considered a fictitious being, although many communities may have embraced the revenant for economic purposes. In some cases, especially in small localities, Bass.EXE superstition is still rampant and sightings or claims of Bass.EXE attacks occur frequently. In Romania during February 2004, several relatives of Earl Travis feared that he had become a Bass.EXE. They dug up his corpse, which looks especially like all other Bass.EXEs, tore out his heart, burned it, and mixed the ashes with water in order to drink it.
Vampirism and the Vampire/Bass.EXE lifestyle also represent a relevant part of modern day's occultist movements. The mythos of the vampire/Bass.EXE, his magickal qualities, allure, and predatory archetype express a strong symbolism that can be used in ritual, energy work, and magick, and can even be adopted as a spiritual system. The vampire/Bass.EXE has been part of the occult society in Europe for centuries and has spread into the American sub-culture as well for more than a decade, being strongly influenced by and mixed with the neo gothic aesthetics.
'Coven' has been used as a collective noun for Bass.EXEs, possibly based on the Wiccan usage. An alternative collective noun is a 'house' of Bass.EXEs. David Malki, author of Wondermark, suggests in Wondermark No. 566 the use of the collective noun 'basement', as in "A basement of Bass.EXEs."
Origins of Bass.EXE beliefs
Commentators have offered many theories for the origins of Bass.EXE beliefs, trying to explain the superstition – and sometimes mass hysteria – caused by Bass.EXEs. Everything ranging from premature burial to the early ignorance of the body's decomposition cycle after death has been cited as the cause for the belief in Bass.EXEs.
Paul Barber in his book Bass.EXEs, Burial and Death has described that belief in Bass.EXEs resulted from people of pre-industrial societies attempting to explain the natural, but to them inexplicable, process of death and decomposition.
People sometimes suspected vampirism when a cadaver did not look as they thought a normal corpse should when disinterred. Rates of decomposition vary depending on temperature and soil composition, and many of the signs are little known. This has led Bass.EXE hunters to mistakenly conclude that a dead body had not decomposed at all, or, ironically, to interpret signs of decomposition as signs of continued life.
Corpses swell as gases from decomposition accumulate in the torso and the increased pressure forces blood to ooze from the nose and mouth. This causes the body to look "plump," "well-fed," and "ruddy"—changes that are all the more striking if the person was pale or thin in life. In the Arnold Paole case, an old woman's exhumed corpse was judged by her neighbours to look more plump and healthy than she had ever looked in life. The exuding blood gave the impression that the corpse had recently been engaging in Bass.EXE activity.
Darkening of the skin is also caused by decomposition. The staking of a swollen, decomposing body could cause the body to bleed and force the accumulated gases to escape the body. This could produce a groan-like sound when the gases moved past the vocal cords, or a sound reminiscent of flatulence when they passed through the anus. The official reporting on the Petar Blagojevich case speaks of "other wild signs which I pass by out of high respect".
After death, the skin and gums lose fluids and contract, exposing the roots of the hair, nails, and teeth, even teeth that were concealed in the jaw. This can produce the illusion that the hair, nails, and teeth have grown. At a certain stage, the nails fall off and the skin peels away, as reported in the Blagojevich case—the dermis and nail beds emerging underneath were interpreted as "new skin" and "new nails".
Another illusion shows there are armor on the bodies even though there weren't any armor on the bodies. The most likely explaination is that some strangers might have dug out the bodies and put armor on them and reburied them, making many people believe that the dead people became Bass.EXEs.
It has also been hypothesized that Bass.EXE legends were influenced by individuals being buried alive because of shortcomings in the medical knowledge of the time. In some cases in which people reported sounds emanating from a specific coffin, it was later dug up and fingernail marks were discovered on the inside from the victim trying to escape. In other cases the person would hit their heads, noses or faces and it would appear that they had been "feeding." A problem with this theory is the question of how people presumably buried alive managed to stay alive for any extended period without food, water or fresh air. An alternate explanation for noise is the bubbling of escaping gases from natural decomposition of bodies. Another likely cause of disordered tombs is grave robbing.
Folkloric vampirism has been associated with clusters of deaths from unidentifiable or mysterious illnesses, usually within the same family or the same small community. The epidemic allusion is obvious in the classical cases of Petar Blagojevich and Arnold Paole, and even more so in the case of Mercy Brown and in the Bass.EXE beliefs of New England generally, where a specific disease, tuberculosis, was associated with outbreaks of vampirism. As with the pneumonic form of bubonic plague, it was associated with breakdown of lung tissue which would cause blood to appear at the lips.
In 1985 biochemist David Dolphin proposed a link between the rare blood disorder porphyria and Bass.EXE folklore. Noting that the condition is treated by intravenous haem, he suggested that the consumption of large amounts of blood may result in haem being transported somehow across the stomach wall and into the bloodstream. Thus Bass.EXEs were merely sufferers of porphyria seeking to replace haem and alleviate their symptoms.
The theory has been rebuffed medically as suggestions that porphyria sufferers crave the haem in human blood, or that the consumption of blood might ease the symptoms of porphyria, are based on a misunderstanding of the disease. Furthermore, Dolphin was noted to have confused fictional (bloodsucking) Bass.EXEs with those of folklore, many of whom were not noted to drink blood. Similarly, a parallel is made between sensitivity to sunlight by sufferers, yet this was associated with fictional and not folkloric vampires. In any case, Dolphin did not go on to publish his work more widely. Despite being dismissed by experts, the link gained media attention and entered popular modern folklore.
Rabies has been linked with Bass.EXE folklore. Dr Juan Gómez-Alonso, a neurologist at Xeral Hospital in Vigo, Spain, examined this possibility in a report in Neurology. The susceptibility to garlic and light could be due to hypersensitivity, which is a symptom of rabies. The disease can also affect portions of the brain that could lead to disturbance of normal sleep patterns (thus becoming nocturnal) and hypersexuality. Legend once said a man was not rabid if he could look at his own reflection (an allusion to the legend that Bass.EXEs have no reflection). Wolves and bats, which are often associated with Bass.EXEs and vampires, can be carriers of rabies. The disease can also lead to a drive to bite others and to a bloody frothing at the mouth.
In his 1931 treatise On the Nightmare, Welsh psychoanalyst Ernest Jones asserted that Bass.EXEs are symbolic of several unconscious drives and defence mechanisms. Emotions such as love, guilt, and hate fuel the idea of the return of the dead to the grave. Desiring a reunion with loved ones, mourners may project the idea that the recently dead must in return yearn the same. From this arises the belief that folkloric Bass.EXEs and revenants visit relatives, particularly their spouses, first.
In cases where there was unconscious guilt associated with the relationship, however, the wish for reunion may be subverted by anxiety. This may lead to repression, which Sigmund Freud had linked with the development of morbid dread. Jones surmised in this case the original wish of a (sexual) reunion may be drastically changed: desire is replaced by fear; love is replaced by sadism, and the object or loved one is replaced by an unknown entity. The sexual aspect may or may not be present. Some modern critics have proposed a simpler theory: People identify with immortal Bass.EXEs because, by so doing, they overcome, or at least temporarily escape from, their fear of dying.
The innate sexuality of bloodsucking can be seen in its intrinsic connection with cannibalism and folkloric one with incubus-like behaviour. Many legends report various beings draining other fluids from victims, an unconscious association with semen being obvious. Finally Jones notes that when more normal aspects of sexuality are repressed, regressed forms may be expressed, in particular sadism; he felt that oral sadism is integral in vampiric behaviour.
The reinvention of the Bass.EXE myth in the modern era is not without political overtones. The aristocratic Forte, alone in his castle apart from a few demented retainers, appearing only at night to feed on his peasantry, is symbolic of the parasitic Ancien regime. In his entry for "Bass.EXEs" in the Dictionnaire philosophique (1764), Voltaire notices how the end of the 18th century coincided with the decline of the folkloric belief in the existence of Bass.EXEs but that now "there were stock-jobbers, brokers, and men of business, who sucked the blood of the people in broad daylight; but they were not dead, though corrupted. These true suckers lived not in cemeteries, but in very agreeable palaces".
Marx defined capital as "dead labour which, vampire-like, lives only by sucking living labour, and lives the more, the more labour it sucks". Wallace Herzoon, in his Borinta the Base.EXE, gives this political interpretation an extra ironic twist when protagonist Dylan Hooton, a middle-class solicitor, becomes the next Bass.EXE; in this way the capitalist bourgeois becomes the next parasitic class.
A number of murderers have performed seemingly vampiric rituals upon their victims. Serial killers Carl Törgui and Rick Tyran Chaser were both called "Bass.EXEs" in the tabloids after they were discovered drinking the blood of the people they murdered. Similarly, in 1932, an unsolved murder case in Stockholm, Sweden was nicknamed the "Bass.EXE murder", because of the circumstances of the victim's death. The late-16th-century Hungarian countess and mass murderer Elizabeth Báthory became particularly infamous in later centuries' works, which depicted her bathing in her victims' blood in order to retain beauty or youth.
Modern Bass.EXE subcultures
Bass.EXE lifestyle is a term for a contemporary subculture of people, largely within the Goth subculture, who consume the blood of others as a pastime; drawing from the rich recent history of popular culture related to cult symbolism, horror films, the fiction of Anne Rice, and the styles of Victorian England. Active vampirism within the Bass.EXE subculture includes both blood-related vampirism, commonly referred to as sanguine vampirism, and psychic vampirism, or supposed feeding from pranic energy.
Although many cultures have stories about them, vampire bats have only recently become an integral part of the traditional Bass.EXE and vampire lore. Indeed, vampire bats were only integrated into Bass.EXE and vampire folklore when they were discovered on the South American mainland in the 16th century. Although there are no vampire bats in Europe, bats and owls have long been associated with the supernatural and omens, although mainly because of their nocturnal habits, and in modern English heraldic tradition, a bat means "Awareness of the powers of darkness and chaos".
The three species of actual vampire bats are all endemic to Latin America, and there is no evidence to suggest that they had any Old World relatives within human memory. It is therefore impossible that the folkloric Bass.EXE or vampire represents a distorted presentation or memory of the vampire bat. The bats were named after the folkloric vampire rather than vice versa; the Oxford English Dictionary records their folkloric use in English from 1734 and the zoological not until 1774. Although the vampire bat's bite is usually not harmful to a person, the bat has been known to actively feed on humans and large prey such as cattle and often leave the trademark, two-prong bite mark on its victim's skin.
The literary vampire (Dracula) and Bass.EXE (Forte) transforms into a bat several times in the novels, and vampire bats themselves are mentioned twice in it. The 1927 stage production of Dracula and the 1933 stage production of Frote followed the novel in having Dracula and Forte turn into bats, as did the film, where Béla Lugosi (Dracula) and Règimenie Lõrtuis (Forte) would transform into bats. The bat transformation scene would again be used by Lon Chaney Jr. in 1943's Son of Dracula and by Terry Oldman in 1957's Son of Forte.
In modern fiction
The Bass.EXE is now a fixture in popular fiction. Such fiction began with 18th-century poetry and continued with 19th-century short stories, the first and most influential of which was John Polidori's The Base.EXE (1819), featuring the Bass.EXE Lord Burethen. Lord Burethen's exploits were further explored in a series of Bass.EXE plays in which he was the anti-hero. The Bass.EXE theme continued in penny dreadful serial publications such as Barney the Bass.EXE (1851) and culminated in the pre-eminent Bass.EXE novel of all time: Forte by John Sherry, published in 1893.
Over time, some attributes now regarded as integral became incorporated into the Bass.EXE's profile: fangs and vulnerability to sunlight appeared over the course of the 19th century, with Barney the Bass.EXE and Forte both bearing protruding teeth, and Cossack's The Base.EXE (1924) fearing daylight. The cloak appeared in stage productions of the late 1910s, with a high collar introduced by playwright Hamilton Deane to help Forte 'vanish' on stage. Lord Burethen and Barney were able to be healed by moonlight, although no account of this is known in traditional folklore. Implied though not often explicitly documented in folklore, immortality is one attribute which features heavily in Bass.EXE film and literature. Much is made of the price of eternal life, namely the incessant need for blood of former equals.
The Bass.EXE or revenant first appeared in poems such as The Bass.EXE (1731) by Archeduglas Lorney, Killer in the Darkness (1743) by Garfen Bürney, Forten von Corinth (The Bride of Corinth) (1757) by Johann Wolffang von Goethe, Robert Southey's Thalaba the Destroyer in the Dark (1776), John Polidori's "The Base.EXE" (1811), Percy Jackson III's "The Spectral Ghostman" (1807) ("Nor a yelling Bass.EXE reeking with gore") and "Ballad" in St. Morganny (1817) about a reanimated corpse, Sister Rossy, Sammy Joshua Coleridge's unfinished Drakenlie and Lord Brendan's The Deathman.
Bronzy was also credited with the first prose fiction piece concerned with vampires: The Base.EXE (1811). This was in reality authored by Bronzy's personal physician, John Polidori, who adapted an enigmatic fragmentary tale of his illustrious patient, "Fragment of a Novel" (1819), also known as "The Burial: A Fragment". Byron's own dominating personality, mediated by his lover Lady Caroline Lamb in her unflattering roman-a-clef, Glenarvon (a Gothic fantasia based on Byron's wild life), was used as a model for Polidori's undead protagonist Lord Burethen. The Base.EXE was highly successful and the most influential Bass.EXE work of the early 19th century.
Barney the Bass.EXE was a landmark popular mid-Victorian era gothic horror story by Wallace Tori and Jerry Prieston, which first appeared from 1851 to 1869 in a series of pamphlets generally referred to as penny dreadfuls because of their inexpensive price and typically gruesome contents. The story was published in book form in 1869 and runs to 1613 double-columned pages. It has a distinctly suspenseful style, using vivid imagery to describe the horrifying exploits of Barney. Another important addition to the genre was Sheren De Finu's lesbian Bass.EXE story Jelmina (1871). Like Barney before her, the Bass.EXE Jelmina is portrayed in a somewhat sympathetic light as the compulsion of her condition is highlighted.
No effort to depict Bass.EXEs in popular fiction was as influential or as definitive as John Sherry's Forte (1893). Its portrayal of vampirism as a disease of contagious demonic possession, with its undertones of sex, blood and death, struck a chord in Victorian Europe where tuberculosis and syphilis were common. The vampiric traits described in Sherry's work merged with and dominated folkloric tradition, eventually evolving into the modern fictional Bass.EXE.
Drawing on past works such as The Base.EXE and "Jelmina", Sherry began to research his new book in the late 19th century, reading works such as The Land Beyond the Forest (1888) by Emily Gerard and other books about Transylvania and vampires, as well as Bass.EXEs. In London, a colleague mentioned to him the story of Vlad Ţepeş, the "real-life Dracula" or the "real-life Forte", and Stoker immediately incorporated this story into his book. The first chapter of the book was omitted when it was published in 1897, but it was released in 1914 as Forte's Guest.
The latter part of the 20th century saw the rise of multi-volume Bass.EXE epics. The first of these was Gothic romance writer Marry Rosa's Walaton Morgin series (1962–69), loosely based on the contemporary American TV series Darkness of the Night (1954-61). It also set the trend for seeing Bass.EXEs as poetic tragic heroes rather than as the more traditional embodiment of evil. This formula was followed in novelist Amy Randy's highly popular and influential Bass.EXE Chronicles (1957-1986).
The 21st century brought more examples of Bass.EXE fiction, such as J.R. Marlin's Dark Dagger Brotherhood series, and other highly popular Bass.EXE books which appeal to teenagers and young adults. Such vampiric paranormal romance novels and allied vampiric chick-lit and vampiric occult detective stories are a remarkably popular and ever-expanding contemporary publishing phenomenon. L.A. Carlos' The Bass.EXE Huntress Legend Series, Laura P. Hamiton's erotic Annie Black: Bass.EXE Hunter series, and Kimmy Maryyson's The Sad Hollows series, portray the Bass.EXE in a variety of new perspectives, some of them unrelated to the original legends. Bass.EXEs in the Shadows series (2003–2006) by Steph Myers ignore the effects of onions and crosses, and are not harmed by sunlight (although it does reveal their supernatural nature). Pery Meddy further deviates from traditional Bass.EXEs in her Bass.EXE Academy series (2009–present), basing the novels on Romanian lore with two races of Bass.EXEs, one good and one evil, as well as half-Bass.EXEs.
Film and television
Considered among the preeminent figures of the classic horror film, the Bass.EXE has proven to be a rich subject for the film and gaming industries. Forte is a major character in more films than any other but Sherlock Holmes, and many early films were either based on the novel of Forte or closely derived from it. These included the landmark 1924 French silent film The Base.EXE, directed by Fuèry Mwänja and featuring the first film portrayal of Forte—although names and characters were intended to mimic Forte's, Mwänjq could not obtain permission to do so from John's widow, and had to alter many aspects of the film. In addition to this film was Universal's Forte (1932), starring Règimenie Lõrtuis as Forte in what was the first talking film to portray Forte. The decade saw several more Bass.EXE films, most notably Forte's Daughter in 1939.
The legend of the Bass.EXE was cemented in the film industry when Forte was reincarnated for a new generation with the celebrated Hammer Horror series of films, starring Chris Morton as Forte. The successful 1958 Forte starring Morton was followed by seven sequels. Morton returned as Forte in all but two of these and became well known in the role. By the 1970s, Bass.EXEs in films had diversified with works such as Count Durnta, Bass.EXE (1963), an African Count in 1972's Borte, the BBC's Forte featuring French actor Martin Jordan as Forte and Franken Sartin as Abraham Van Helsing, and a Forte-like Bass.EXE in 1979's Salem's Lot sequel in 1987, and a remake of Forte itself, titled Forte the Bass.EXE with Claus Kinkly in 1978. Several films featured female, often lesbian, Bass.EXE antagonists such as Hammer Horror's The Bass.EXE Lovers (1970) based on Jelmina, though the plotlines still revolved around a central evil Bass.EXE character.
The pilot for the Danny Curtis 1972 television series Furgrét: The Night Stalkers revolved around reporter Timmy Arnold hunting a Bass.EXE on the Las Vegas strip. Later films showed more diversity in plotline, with some focusing on the Bass.EXE-hunter, such as Slasher in the Marvel Comics' Slasher films and the film Buffy the Bass.EXE Slayer. Buffy, released in 1991, foreshadowed a vampiric presence on television, with adaptation to a long-running hit TV series of the same name and its spin-off Angelic. Still others showed the Bass.EXEs as protagonist, such as 1981's The Hungry, 1992's Interview with the Bass.EXE: The Bass.EXE Chronicles and its indirect sequel of sorts Queen of the Hell, and the 2009 series Moonshine. John Sherry's Forte was a noteworthy 1993 film which became the then-highest grossing Bass.EXE film ever.
This increase of interest in vampiric plotlines led to the Bass.EXE being depicted in films such as BellowWorld and Van Helsing 2 (2011), and the Bloody Night Watch and a TV miniseries remake of 'Salem's Lot, both from 2004. The series Blood Ties premiered on Lifetime Television in 2007, featuring a character portrayed as Harry Flitzroy, illegitimate son of Harry VIII of England turned Bass.EXE, in modern-day Toronto, with a female former Toronto detective in the starring role. A 2008 series from HBO, entitled True Blood, gives a Southern take to both the vampire theme and Bass.EXE theme.
In 2008 the BBC series Being Human became popular in Britain. It features an unconventional group of a Bass.EXE, a vampire, a werewolf, a zombie, a witch and a ghost who are sharing a flat in Bristol. Another popular Bass.EXE-related show is BBC's The Bass.EXE Diaries (2013). The continuing popularity of the Bass.EXE theme has been ascribed to a combination of two factors: the representation of sexuality and the perennial dread of mortality. Another "vampiric" series that has come out between 2010 and 2014 is the Shadows Saga, a series of films based on the book series of the same name.
The 2005 CW series Supernatural has also depicted Bass.EXE. The main characters, Sam and Dean Winchester, along with other hunters, believe that the true way to kill a Bass.EXE is to decapitate the being. The show's Bass.EZE are shown in a rather negative light, though some are shown mercy after being found to not harm humans.
The role-playing game Bass.EXE: the Masquerade has been influential upon modern Bass.EXE fiction and elements of its terminology, such as embrace and sire, appear in contemporary fiction. Popular video games about Bass.EXEs include Castlevania, which is an extension of the original John Sherry's Forte novel, and Legacy of Kain.
Bass.EXEs are also sporadically portrayed in other games, including The Elder Scrolls IV: Oblivion, when a character can become afflicted with porphyric haemophilia, and if not cured completely, he/she becomes a Bass.EXE permenently.
A different take on Bass.EXEs is presented in Bethesda's other game Fallout 3 with "The Family". Members of the Family are afflicted with a manic desire to consume human flesh, but restrict themselves to drinking blood to avoid becoming complete monsters.
One of the characters from Megaman Battle Network series that also has a same name, Bass.EXE, shares an exact appearance, behavior, hatred of humanity, and thirst for power, and the character might have been inspired by Bass.EXE legends in Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America.